Nieuw-Nederland, or New Netherland, chartered in 1614, was a colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in what became New York State and parts of neighboring states. The peak population was less than 10,000. The Dutch established a patroon system with feudal-like rights given to a few powerful landholders; they also established religious tolerance and free trade. The colony’s capital, New Amsterdam, founded in 1625 and located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan, would grow to become a major world city. The city was captured by the English in 1664; they took complete control of the colony in 1674 and renamed it New York. However the Dutch landholdings remained, and the Hudson River Valley maintained a traditional Dutch character until the 1820s. Traces of Dutch influence, such as homes, family surnames, and the names of roads and whole towns remain in present-day northern New Jersey and southeastern New York State.
Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_history_of_the_United_States, http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/NNHistory.html